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About R.O.

Q. WHAT IS THE MEMBRANE AND HOW DOES IT WORK?
A. The membrane consists of several thin layers or sheets of film that are bonded together and rolled in a spiral configuration around a plastic tube. (This is also known as a thin film composite or TFC membrane.) The material of the membrane is semi-permeable; it allows water molecules to pass through while acting as a barrier to dissolved solids (i.e., mineral & chemical contaminants). The pores of the membrane are too small ( 0.0001) for the contaminants in water to pass through them.



If you look at our page on "Dangers from Unpure Water," it tells you about the contaminants in our water sources. Some of these contaminants are microscopic, as the following chart shows you: A high quality membrane is a much better strainer than a simple filter which attaches to your faucet or sits on the counter-top. The photos below were taken with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at 8000x magnification. The photo on the left shows that the pores of a RO membrane are undetectable, while the pores of a pleated filter on the right are easily seen:

    

As this diagram shows, a high-quality membrane will prevent even the smallest bacteria from entering your drinking water.



Q. WHAT IS REVERSE OSMOSIS?
A. Reverse Osmosis is the reversal of the natural flow of osmosis. In a water purification system, the goal is not to dilute the salt solution, but to separate the pure water from the salt and other contaminants. When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - thus the term REVERSE OSMOSIS. Through this process, we are able to produce pure water by screening out the salts and other contaminants.

Q. WHAT IS THE ACTUAL PROCESS OF A REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM?
A. With our Filtron RO System, the raw tap water first flows through a 5 micron SEDIMENT FILTER to remove dirt, rust and other sediment. The water then flows into a 5 micron CARBON FILTER which takes out 98% of the chlorine and organic chemicals. The water then flows into a 1 micron the Block carbon filter to filter multi-chemical compounds and suspension. CARBON FILTER which improve water quality for R O membrane. The water proceeds to the Automatic Shut-off (ASO). If the tank is full, all the inlet water stops there. If the tank is less than full, the water continues. The next stage of the process is the reverse osmosis membrane which will separate 95-99% of the dissolved contaminants from the water molecules. The contaminants are then washed down the drain.

Water flow diagram of our RO Unit


The following diagram is a simplistic picture of the flow of water in our RO Unit: The next stage of the process is the small carbon POST FILTER that removes the remaining traces of chemicals, tastes and odors. The R.O. water is stored in a 4 gal. TANK. Inside the tank is a balloon-like rubber diaphragm, pre-charged with 7 psi of air. As the tank fills, the air pressure increases and pressurizes the water so that it flows to the FAUCET without a pump. The faucet is installed on the kitchen counter or the sink. It is a dual action faucet offering intermittent flow (to fill a glass, hold the handle down) or continuous flow (to fill a coffee pot, lift the handle up).

Q. CAN YOUR SYSTEM HANDLE HARD WATER?
A. Yes, if your water is 500ppm of hardness or less, we call this moderately hard water. With this level of hardness, it can go right into the R.O. system without a problem. However, if you have harder water, it might be a good idea to have a water softener because it removes calcium, magnesium, and iron which can impair an R.O. membrane. The negative side to running softened water through the R.O. system, is that a water softener normally adds salt to the water, and a regular R.O. membrane normally removes only 85% to 92% of the salt. Thus, if you are on a low sodium diet, it would be better not to add salt to your water before sending it through your R.O. system. The only downside to not softening really hard water is that you may just have to change the membrane more often.

Q. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CONTAMINANTS?
A. The reverse osmosis process cannot go on indefinitely without removing the contaminants. Ultimately the membrane could become clogged by salt and other impurities, requiring increasingly greater pressure to force water through the membrane. To solve this problem, the membranes are configured to split the feed water into two streams one part to be purified and the other part to wash away the particles rejected by the membrane.




Q: WILL FILTRON R.O. REMOVE SODIUM FROM THE WATER ?
A. YES! Reverse Osmosis was originally designed to make sea water drinkable for the navy. It is ideal for anyone on a low sodium diet.

Q: WHAT IS THE WARRANTY ON THE FILTRON RO WATER MAKER ?
A. The Filtron System (excluding filters) is warranted for 1 year for Electrical material and workmanship. All defective parts will be repaired free within the first year. The membrane has a one year pro-rated warrantee.

Q: WHAT IS THE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE FOR THE FILTRON RO WATER MAKER ?
A. The three pre-filter cartridges should be changed every 6 months. The first is a 5 micron sediment cartridge. The second is a 5 micron Carbon Cartridge. The third is a 1 micron Extruded carbon filter. Failure to change the cartridge every 6 months may allow chlorine to destroy the membrane. Depending upon the water it is treating, the Thin Film Composite membrane has a life expectancy of 3 to 10 years The post filter should be changed when the membrane needs changing.

Q. HOW MUCH WATER DOES AN R.O. SYSTEM PRODUCE?
A. Currently our Filtron System comes with a standard membrane rated to produce 12 Ltr. Per hour.

Q: HOW DOES REVERSE OSMOSIS DIFFER FROM A WATER FILTER ?
A. Ordinary water filters use a screen to separate only particles of dirt sediment from water. Reverse osmosis employs a semipermeable membrane that removes not only particles but also an extremely high percentage of dissolved contaminants-molecule by molecule- from raw tap water.

Q: DOES R.O. REMOVE BACTERIA ? CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ?
A. YES! An R.O. membrane has a pore size much smaller than bacteria virus, pyrogen or the cryptosporidium parasite. When functioning properly it will remove all microorganisms from tap water and produce sterile water .

Q:WHEN SHOULD THE MEMBRANE BE CHANGED ?
A. One indication is a gradual reduction in water production caused by a layering of minerals and salts on the membrane surface. Another is a gradual deterioration in the quality of water being produced. You my notice a different taste or more white scum on the inside of a pan of water you are boiling. This might mean the R.O. membrane is disintegrating and requires replacement.

Q: WHAT CONTAMINANTS DOES REVERSE OSMOSIS REMOVE ?
A. The PurePro System contains a quality carbon filter which will remove more than 98% of organic chemicals from the water. These include THMs(chloroform), DBCP, lindane, TCEs(trichloroethylene), PCEs(tetrachloroethylene), carbon tetrachloride chlorine, In addition to these organic chemicals, below is a partial list of other contaminants removed by the Re1812-70 TFC membrane. The percentage of removal shown below is a conservative estimate.

TYPICAL THIN FILM COMPOSITE(TFC) MEMBRANE REJECTION RATE*

Material/Element

% Removed

Material/Element

% Removed

Barium

97%

Potassium

92%

Bicarbonate

94%

Radium

97%

Cadmium

97%

Selenium

97%

Calcium

97%

Silicate

96%

Chromate

92%

Silver

85%

Copper

97%

Sodium

92%

Detergents

97%

Strontium

97%

Fluoride

90%

Sulfate

97%

Lead

97%

PCBs

97%

Magnesium

97%

Insecticides

97%

Nickel

97%

Herbicides

97%

Nirtrates

80%

 

 

Total Dissol Solids

95%

 

 

 
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